Includes civilian-led panel on certification, developmentally-appropriate de-escalation, community policing, behavioral health council
Arlington's legislative delegation joined colleagues in the Senate and House to pass S.2963, An Act relative to justice, equity and accountability in law enforcement in the Commonwealth.
The legislation represents the most comprehensive and intentional legislative response to incidents involving police practices in Massachusetts communities, says a Dec. 4 news releasefrom Sen. Cindy F. Friedman (D-Arlington), Rep. Dave Rogers (D-Cambridge) and Rep. Sean Garballey (D-Arlington).
The measure creates an independent, civilian-led commission to standardize the certification, training and decertification of police officers, bans the use of choke holds, limits the use of deadly force, creates a duty to intervene for police officers when witnessing another officer using force beyond what is necessary or reasonable under the circumstances and takes steps to break the school-to-prison pipeline.
Moratorium on facial recognition
It also creates a first-in-the-nation statewide moratorium on biometric surveillance systems, which include facial-recognition technology.
“This legislation is a thoughtful and meaningful step in the right direction,” said Friedman, vice chair of Senate Ways and Means, in the release. “We have a lot of work to do in Massachusetts and across the country to address systemic racism within our institutions and reforming how we police is part of that necessary work—but by no means should it represent the end of this important conversation. I look forward to continuing to work with my colleagues to strengthen racial justice and equity across the Commonwealth.”
Friedman said she is proud to see provisions that she advocated for via the amendment process during the Senate bill debate were included in the final bill, including:
- Ensuring that age- and developmentally-appropriate de-escalation techniques are used when police officers interact with minor children, and that the use of force in those instances is only a last resort and appropriate to the circumstances; and
- Tasking the community policing and behavioral health advisory council with studying and making recommendations for creating a crisis response and continuity of care system that diverts individuals away from incarceration toward alternative emergency services and programs across the commonwealth.
“While we cannot fully make amends for the sins of America’s past, and the ongoing racial inequities that persist, we have to try,” said Rogers. “In a truly landmark breakthrough here in Massachusetts, we passed far-reaching reforms that touch on countless areas of how our police do their work. I am particularly pleased that these reforms encompass all the core principles advanced by the black and Latino legislative caucus.”
Summary of provisions
A summary and outline of the bill’s provisions is as follows.
The bill creates a Massachusetts Peace Officer Standards and Training Commission—an independent state entity, the majority of which is composed of civilians—to standardize the certification, training and decertification of police officers.
The commission will have independent power to investigate misconduct and will serve as the civil enforcement agency to certify, restrict, revoke or suspend certification for officers, agencies and academies, among other duties regarding regulations regarding use-of-force standards, and the maintenance of a publicly available database of decertified officers. Within the commission are the Division of Police Training and Certification, under the management and control of the newly established Committee on Police Training and Certification, and the Division of Police Standards.
The bill establishes strong guardrails governing the use of force, prohibiting certain actions and requiring the use of de-escalation tactics. The Committee on Police Training and Certification will promulgate regulations for use-of-force standards in areas including the use of physical or deadly force, the discharge of a firearm into a fleeing motor vehicle and the use of tear gas, rubber pellets and dogs. The legislation also bans the use of choke holds.
Duty to intervene
The legislation establishes a duty to intervene, requiring that an officer intervene if he or she sees another officer using physical force beyond that which is necessary or objectively reasonable based on the totality of the circumstances, unless intervening will result in imminent harm to the officer or another identifiable person.
In addition, the legislation requires a police department with advance knowledge of a planned mass demonstration or protest to attempt, in good faith, to communicate with the organizers of the event. The department will be required to make plans to avoid and de-escalate potential conflict and designate an officer in charge of these plans.
The legislation establishes a special legislative commission to study and examine the Civil Service law. This commission will study the hiring procedures, personnel administration rules, employment, promotion, performance evaluation, and disciplinary procedures for civil service employees, municipalities not subject to the provisions of the Civil Service law, and the Massachusetts State Police to improve diversity, transparency, and representation in the recruitment, hiring, and training of these groups.
The legislation also creates three special legislative commissions to study the presence of institutional racism in the criminal justice system and make policy or legislative recommendations to eliminate disparities.
- Special Commission on Structural Racism in Correctional Facilities;
- Special Commission on Structural Racism in Parole Process; and
- Special Commission on Structural Racism in Probation Services.
The legislation also sets standards for qualified immunity under which qualified immunity would not extend to a law enforcement officer who, while acting under color of law, violates a person’s right to bias-free professional policing if that conduct results in the officer’s decertification by the overseeing commission. It also establishes a commission to investigate and study the impact to the administration of justice of the qualified-immunity doctrine in the Commonwealth.
Based on legislation filed by Rogers in partnership with the ACLU, the legislation bans a public agency or employee from acquiring, accessing, or using any software that captures biometric data, including facial recognition, except by the Registry of Motor Vehicles (RMV). A law enforcement agency may only request that the RMV perform a search of its facial recognition database in cases of immediate danger or pursuant to a warrant based on probable cause. The legislation also establishes a special legislative commission to study the use of facial recognition technology by the Massachusetts Department of Transportation.
Included in the legislation are a number of measures relating to reforms within the Massachusetts State Police, including a provision that requires the commission to approve training by the state police and certify state police officer and allows the colonel of the state police to be appointed from outside the ranks of the State Police.
The legislation sets limits on sharing student records by schools, directs the Committee on Police Training and Certification to develop an in-service training program for school resource officers, and gives the commission the power to issue a specialized certification for school resource officers.
Bans racial profiling
In addition, the legislation includes the following provisions:
- Banning racial profiling by prohibiting law enforcement agencies from engaging in racial profiling;
- Requiring the Department of Public Health to collect and report data on law enforcement-related injuries and deaths;
- Expanding eligibility for record expungement from one criminal or juvenile record to two and allowing multiple charges stemming from the same incident to be treated as once offense for the purposes of expungement;
- Criminalizing the submission of a false time sheet by a law enforcement officer, punishable by a fine of three times the amount of the fraudulent wages paid or by imprisonment for not more than two years;
- Strengthening the penalties for law enforcement officers who have sexual intercourse with, or who commit indecent assault and battery on, a person in custody or control of the law enforcement officer; and
- Strengthening the criteria for which a no-knock warrant may be issued.
The legislation also establishes the following commissions, task forces and studies:
- Body Camera Taskforce;
- Community Policing and Behavioral Health Advisory Council study of community-based crisis response;
- Permanent Commission on the status of African Americans;
- Permanent Commission on the status of Latinos and Latinas;
- Permanent Commission on the status of people with disabilities;
- Permanent Commission on the status of Black men and boys;
- Commission to study the feasibility of establishing a statewide law enforcement officer cadet program;
- Commission on corrections officer training and certification;
- Commission to investigate and study the benefits and costs of consolidating existing municipal police training committee training academies; and
- Commission on emergency hospitalizations.
The bill has gone to Gov. Baker.
Find the full text of the legislation here >>
This news announcement was published Sunday, Dec. 6, 2020.. It was from Liz M. Berman, Friedman's communications director.